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Mensaje por El Compañero Sáb Jun 28, 2008 11:30 am

EL SIGLO XIX/The XIX Century Century: 1800-1899

Small pox vaccine introduced in Cuba and Venezuela by Dr. Tomas Romay.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.

Burials in churches are prohibited in Cuba. Bishop Estrada organized and built cemetery in Havana.

Vaccination Board is established in Havana.

Anatomical dissection course is given in Havana despite the involvement of the Dominican friars in the University of Havana.

Black water fever and malaria are described in Havana.

The use of obstetrical forceps is advertised in Havana.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba
Le Riverand studies and discusses the diseases of Cuba.

Manikins are used in Havana for medical education.

Montes de Oca performs surgical operations successfully in Cuba.
Lithotomy is performed in Cuba.
Surgery for strangulated abdominal wall hernia is performed successfully in Cuba.

First surgical clinic is established and staffed in Cuba.
First surgical courses are taught in Cuba.
Handbook for midwives is published in Havana.

An insane asylum is established and opened in Cuba.
First essay on mental illnesses is published in Cuba.
A maternity home is opened in Havana.
Small pox epidemic in Cuba.

Small pox epidemic in Cuba.

First dental book is published in Cuba.

Dysentery is reported in Havana.

Board of Health is established in Havana.

Carlos Juan Finlay is born near Camagüey (Puerto Príncipe), Cuba. His parents were newly arrived immigrants to Cuba from the Island of Trinidad in the Southeastern Caribbean. His father – a physician - had arrived a few years earlier to Trinidad after he shipwrecked off the coast of Venezuela where he was going to join the forces of Simón Bolivar.

The “Protomedicato” is terminated in Cuba. Dr. Tomás Romay organized the curriculum and clinical program at the University of Havana Medical School. Romay established both service and teaching clinics.

Epidemic of small pox in Brazil and Cuba.
Chemical laboratory is opened in Havana.

Faculty chair is opened at the University of Havana.
Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.
First rhinoplasty is performed in Cuba.

The “Repertorio Médico-Habanero” appears in Cuba. It was founded and edited by Dr. Nicolás J. Gutiérrez.

Further advances in surgical practice are registered in Cuba.
Dr. Nicolás Gutiérrez performs successfully lithotomy operation and femoral ligation in Havana.

Anthrax is reported prevalent in Cuba.
Scholarly paper on Anthrax is published in Cuba.
Filariasis cases are reported in Cuba.
Epidemic of scarlet fever is reported in Cuba.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.

Slave uprising in Cuba.

The use of chloroform and ether anesthesia is described from Cuba.

Anatomical dissection of cadavers is again formally re-established in Havana for instruction and study of health and disease.

Dysentery is studied and described by Le Riverand in Cuba.

Book on diseases of children is published in Cuba.
Doctor Cowley writes on vital statistics in Cuba.
Census is taken.

Trachoma is described as being highly prevalent in Cuba.
First Thyroidectomy is performed in Cuba.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba.
Census is taken.
Establishment of the “Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana” through the leadership and perseverance of Dr. Nicolás J Gutiérrez. Dr. Gutiérrez became its first president.

Beriberi is reported in Cuba.
Ciguatera fish poisoning is described and reported in Cuba.

Cuban declaration of independence from Spain by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes at : La Demajagua” farm near Yara in the Eastern side of Cuba. The independentists free their slaves and abolish slavery in the territories under their control.

Description of clinical findings and clinical course of hypothyroidism is presented in the Havana Academy of Sciences by Dr. Carlos. J. Finlay writing from Matanzas.

Epidemic of small pox in Cuba and Brazil.

Epidemic of diphtheria in Cuba.
Public water filtration is introduced in Havana.
Medical school freshmen (first year class) are accused by the Spanish Volunteers in Havana of desecrating the tumb of a Spanish journalist. The entire class is apprehended. A court martial type of trial is carried out and eight of the medical students are sentenced to death by firing squad. The remainder of the class, except foe a handful whose liberty was negotiated by the Spanish military and the Consul of the United States are imprisoned.

Glanders is reported in Cuba and Brazil.
The medical students who had been jailed on 27th November 1871 are freed in May 1872 but conditions in Havana are still belligerent against the medical students who had become symbols of Cuban nationalism. All remaining students are then deported under the cover of dawn and leave Havana harbor in a Spanish frigate. Most of the students were deported to Spain. Those who had fallen ill in jail with contagious diseases such as tuberculosis were deported to Ceuta, a city in the Northwest tip of Africa under Spanish rule.

Dental surgery courses begin in Cuba.
The medical publication “Crónica Clínico-Quirúrgica” is published and begins circulating in Cuba.

Paquelin’s cautery is introduced in Cuba.

First surgical ovariectomy is performed in Cuba.
First historical museum is opened in Cuba.

The “Guerra de los 10 Años” ends. Open hostilities between the Spanish crown and the Cuban insurgents (independentists) come to a temporary end, a truce, at “La Paz del Zanjón.” Not all leaders of the independence movement accept the terms, however. Antonio Maceo declares his “Protesta de Baraguá” and continues the fight for a short time.

Poliomyelitis is observed and described in Cuba.
First physiological laboratory is equipped, organized, and staffed in Cuba.
Small pox becomes endemic in Cuba.
The Society of Clinical Studies (Sociedad de Estudios Clínicos) is inaugurated in Havana.

The original observations and postulates of Lister and Semmelweis are disseminated. Antisepsis is introduced in Cuba and in Venezuela.

Dr. Carreras Saavedra performs first successful ovariectomy in Cuba.
Dr. Carlos J. Finaly describes filariasis in Cuba.
Dr. Carlos J. Finlay describes observations on the transmission of yellow fever from the sick person to the healthy one, and the clinical course of subclinical infections with yellow fever provoked by the inoculation of a postulated yellow fever agent through the bite of a particular mosquito.

Dr. Finlay proposes in the Academy of Sciences of Havana that yellow fever is transmitted through the action of a vector, the Aedes Aegypti known at the time as the Culex mosquito.

Bacteriology is introduced in Cuba.

Gastrostomy is performed in Cuba.

First hysterectomy is performed in Cuba.

First tracheostomy is performed in Cuba.
First blood transfusion is performed in Cuba.

Epidemic of scarlet fever in Cuba.

Pamphlet with historical facts, testimonials and documentation entitled “ El 27 de Noviembre de 1871” is published in Havana by one of the surviving students who completed his medical education in Spain after being deported there, Dr. Fermín Valdés Domínguez.

The microbe responsible for Glanders is isolated in Cuba by Dr. Dávalos.

The microbe responsible for Anthrax is isolated in Cuba and a vaccine is prepared in Mexico.

First successful nephrectomy is performed in Cuba.
First symphisiotomy is performed in Cuba.

The Havana Academy Of Sciences inaugurates its second president, Dr. Antonio María de Gordon y Acosta.

Dr. Carlos J. Finlay reports on his inoculations of 104 subjects utilizing infected mosquitoes of the proper genus and species. The inoculations were performed by allowing the subjects to be bitten by mosquitoes who had previously been allowed to feed with the blood of yellow fever patients at a specific interval in the clinical course of the acute illness. Those inoculated were protected from community-acquired yellow fever.
Dr. Finlay discusses clear implications of his thesis regarding the control of yellow fever

Open rebellion against the Spanish rule resumes under the leadership of José Martí who has organized the Cuban Revolutionary Party in the United States. Martí ;ands in Eastern Cuba and dies in battle on 19th May.
Dispensary for children is opened in Matanzas by Gordon and Dr. Domingo Madam.

The Spanish build about an 80 barracks military hospital in a hill near Havana, “La Loma del Príncipe” They name it the Hospital Militar Alfonso XIII.
Antonio Maceo launches the invasion of the island from East to West and dies before returning to Eastern Cuba on December 7th.

The Havana Academy of Sciences inaugurates its third president, Dr. Juan Santos Hernández.
The Spanish bring into Cuba a renowned war hero, General Valeriano Weyler. The latter orders socially draconian measures in order to cut off aid from the Cuban mambises (freedom fighters). The Spanish order, under Weyler, that all farmers leave their land and move to the cities. Large numbers of displaced persons roam the cities without proper housing, food or assistance.
Under the leadership of Gordon, fifteen dispensaries are opened to provide care for the displaced children.
First successful appendectomy is performed in Cuba.
Epidemic of small pox.

Dr. Domingo Madam reports on the deleterious effects of the War of Cuban Independence on the health of the most vulnerable Cubans. Describes peripheral neuropathy and amblyopia secondary to retrobulbar neuritis in the “Crónica Médico Quirúrgica” of Havana.
The United States enters the Cuban war and defeat the Spanish in Santiago de Cuba through the assistance of Cuban mambises such as General Calixto García.
Spanish rule over Cuba ends. The First American intervention begins under the command of Leonard Wood, a physician, named governor of the island.

The Spanish Military Hospital Alfonso XIII is renamed by the American interventors, “Municipal Hospital Number One.”
El Compañero
El Compañero
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